Track Categories

The track category is the heading under which your abstract will be reviewed and later published in the conference printed matters if accepted. During the submission process, you will be asked to select one track category for your abstract.

Anatomy deals with the science of studying body's structure and morphology by dissecting the cadavers, microscopic examinations, etc. Whereas, Physiology is the science of learning about the functioning of all the organs and systems in the human body. Currently, the study of Anatomy and Physiology is at its advanced level as many innovations and breakthroughs in the researches and scientific technologies for studying them are being developed progressively. The approach of advanced anatomy and physiology is to emphasize the inter relationship between the anatomical structure and the physiological functioning of the macro and microscopic levels of organisms.

The teaching procedures of anatomy and physiology have met with great evolutionary transformations ranging from a cadaver i.e. a dead body to modern patient viewing modalities. Some of the recent new achievements in this field are the Scaffold technology for bone healing, Stem cell research, virtual reality for paraplegics, Discovery of the linkage between hallucination and the musical aptitude, Early detection of osteoporosis, etc…

The anatomical techniques refer to the ideology of the investigation of the deceased human body using various experimental methods. It is done by the means of preservation of the body to understand its anatomy, form, structure completely. There are two means of preservation which are the natural and artificial means of preparation. The artificial preservation of the dead bodies has largely impacted in the studies of anatomy by retaining for a very long time.

Generally, Embalming and Plastination are the two methods of prolonging the decomposition period of the dead bodies which are providing a pathway for new and fascinating anatomical research and study of human beings. These processes use the injection of chemicals inside the deceased to retain for a longer time. Anthropometry is also one of the methods to study anatomy by measuring the shape, size, structure of the individual. It applies mathematics, geometry, statistics to the body that is to be observed.

Systems biology is the branch of biological science that deals with the computational techniques of the biological entities like cells and organisms. It also explains how they interact with each other to produce various characteristics and behaviour of different systems. A biological system is a complicated network of biological elements. It includes the study of structural and functional studies of biomolecules, structural and functional biology, cellular and molecular biology, molecular immunology, biochemical pathways and mechanisms, protein expression and regulation, biophysics, other molecular biology studies like replication, repair, recombination, transcription, mutation, genomics and proteomics. These are the basic studies of the biological systems. On the whole, there are twelve biological systems present in an organism. The proper functioning of all those systems comprises the complete living system.

The term Biomechanics is generally elucidated as the action of the external and internal forces on the individual body, majorly on the skeletal system. The musculoskeletal system of the organism is responsible for it’s movement, support and maintain a stable posture during locomotion. Generally, the muscular system and the skeletal system combine together to form the musculoskeletal system. They provide

•     Form

•     Support

•     Balance

•     Movement

The skeletal system helps the body to store and regulate the mineral and nutrient balance in the blood stream. It comprises of the longer bones and the bone marrows. The muscular system consists of the shorter bones that are present in the joints and comprises of tendons, joints, ligaments and bursae.

Cancer is the irresistible growth of abnormal cells in the body. They multiply rapidly and continuously. This happens when the old cells do not die, forms new and abnormal cells. These cells collectively form a mass of tissue called tumor. The tumor is the initiative of cancer. They may either be benign (non-dangerous) or malignant (dangerous). Cancer has a complex physiology. It might occur in any part of the body. The anatomy and physiology of cancer deals with the diagnosis, development, biochemical changes, progression and prognosis of the disease. Complete cure treatments for cancer has not yet been developed but there are some preventive methods and treatments for instant cure. Some of the most common types of cancer are listed below.

•     Bladder cancer

•     Breast cancer

•     Colon and Rectal cancer

•     Endometrial Cancer

•     Kidney cancer

•     Leukaemia

•     Liver cancer

•     Lung cancer

•     Melanoma

•     Pancreatic cancer

•     Prostate cancer

•     Thyroid cancer

Surgical anatomy is otherwise called as Applied Surgical anatomy which is the study of the structure and morphology of the tissues and organs in the body that are related to surgery. The surgical anatomy includes the diagnosis, dissection and treatment. They can be either non-invasive examination or invasive examination. The non-invasive examinations are ultrasound, computerized tomography, nuclear magnetic resonance, PET, etc and the invasive examination involves the endoscopy, coloscopy, endosonography, etc...

The Digital anatomy is branch of anatomy which is related to the processing of the complete human body into a system accessible format. The knowledge of anatomy is very important for the medical practice. Usually in hospitals, anatomy is studied by the cadaveric dissection. Because of some problems related to the use of cadavers, the anatomical education had a greater shift towards alternative modes of education like the basic processes of embalming, plastination and advanced computer-based viewing or imaging. New multimedia and simulation technologies have made the 3D viewing of the human body possible. This digital anatomy has both the advantages and disadvantages at some points. Scientists have also proven that new technologies can only enhance anatomical information, but they are not a complete replacement for cadavers.

Ergonomics is a scientific discipline which plays a vital role in the prevention of human sickness and to improve their life style. It considers the human factors such as daily activities, tasks and functions that are performed by an individual. Developments in the sensory aids like visual, hearing and walking assist aids and so on are made according to the factors. The person who makes ergonomic designs are called Ergonomists. A proper design should be essential for preventing the strain injuries and musculoskeletal disorders. The field of ergonomics includes the disciplines like psychology, sociology, biomechanicsphysiology, industrial design, anthropometry, interactive design and user-friendly design. The major three types of ergonomics are

•     Physical ergonomics

•     Organizational ergonomics

•     Cognitive ergonomics

Anatomy and ethics are very closely related to each other. The anatomical and ethical issues can be illustrated in many areas of anatomy. The anatomical education overcomes a variety of issues. It must include both functional and clinical relevance. And it should not only provide knowledge bust also skills and attitudes. These attitudes can be achieved by learning the medical humanities. There are many ethical and sociological issues in the field of anatomy. There are certain ethical and legal principles in anatomy that should be ensured regularly. Some of the major crisis are listed.

• Cadaver related ethics

• Donation of cadavers and dealing with the death.

• Wide range of tools with the advancing technologies

The Evolutionary anatomy is commonly known as Comparative anatomy which is the modern study of similitude and variations in the structure and anatomy of every individual in order to learn about the changes that they have undergone during evolution from their common ancestors and the relationship between different species. It is the anatomy that is related with human evolution as well as the fossil evidences of the humans. The concepts of evolutionary anatomy have been classified as homologous structures and analogous structures. The Homologousstructures are that some structures are similar in related organism as they are originated from the common predecessors whereas the Analogous structures are those structures resemble the same because they perform the same function and not because they have common predecessors.

Exercise Physiology is the term that is used to identify the body’s responses and adaptable changes towards the performance of physical exercise. Endurance exercise and strengthening exercise are the major exercises that are performed for increasing the capacity and strength of the musculoskeletal system. This leads to enhance the quality of human life.

Physiotherapy is the application of exercise physiology and kinesiology to strengthen or to improve the impaired muscle/part and promote normal movement and function. It is also used to improve the patient’s quality through the process of examination, identification and prediction.

A new emerging field for the determination, examination and identification of the preserved or unpreserved body parts of the human remains along with the forensic anthropology i.e. the determination of sex, age, race and stature is the field of Forensic Anatomy. The cause of death can also be examined by this method. It uses the DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) and a genetic material that can be obtained from any part of the body like the hair, blood, bone, saliva, semen, etc. Phenol-Chloroform is added to the DNA to improve its quality. The purposes of forensic anatomy are-

•     The DNA acts as a biometric tool to identify the unknown individuals.

•     DNA profiling of the criminals can be done using the computer systems at molecular levels.

Microscopic anatomy is the study of the anatomy of the basic structures like cells, tissues and organs of the body that cannot be seen with a naked eye. Since it is mainly the study of cells, Microscopic anatomy is also known as Histology. Histology is of much important for understanding the evolution of the organism and the advancement of medicine along with the other aspects of life science. The cells and tissues are studied using histologic techniques like sectioning, paraffinizing, staining with colours and examining them. The histologic processes of cells and tissues can be used for

•     Teaching

•     Diagnosis

•     Forensic Investigations

•     Autopsy

Otorhinolaryngology is the terminology which is a combination of three studies like otologyrhinology and laryngology. It is a surgical speciality of medicine which deals with the three major organs like ear, nose, throat and with other organs of head and skull majorly, head and neck surgery. Also, destructive diseases like tumours and cancer in the head and neck region are treated by an Otorhinolaryngologist. The main function of the otorhinolaryngologists is to do surgeries to restore damaged middle ear, open blocks in the ear and nasal cavities, remove head and neck cancers.

Decreased functioning ability of the body organs or the system due to the attack of any foreign bodies like pathogens is the so-called study of Pathophysiology. It is the conjunction of pathology and physiology and is the study of the improper physiological processes caused due to the diseased condition of the individual.

Pathology is the branch of biology that describes the abnormal conditions observed in the body on the cause of a disease or pathogen and Physiology describes the mechanisms and functions of the inner biological systems. These studies are very important for physicians and nurses to find out the diseases using the symptoms and conditions indicated by the patient’s body

Impairment is the damaged condition or abnormalities in the psychological, physiological and anatomical structure of the human body. It can be either temporary or permanent.

Disability is the lack of ability to perform an activity resulting from an impairment. In general, impairment is the irregularity in the form or structure of the organ and disability is the malfunctioning or limitation in the normal functioning of a part of the body. Impairment cannot be cured completely, it can only be lessened by some treatment but disability can be treated by some physical exercises and physiotherapies using some equipments.

Most of the clinicians view the internal anatomy of humans using the radiographic images that are produced by the radiological equipments. These radiographic imaging modalities have proven to be so advantageous for the healthcare professionals to study the anatomy and structure of the human body without any dissection process. The important feature of radiological anatomy is the radio-opacity of the tissues. Different tissues have varying absorption levels. Therefore, several techniques are applied to differentiate the structures and also for the enhancement of the output images. The radiological equipments that are used to study anatomy are

  • X-Ray
  • Fluoroscopy
  • Computerized Tomography
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Nuclear Medicine